1. According to Deirdre McCloskey, why do some of the traditional explanations for Western prosperity fail, and what in her view is the major, unique ingredient that accounts for it?
McCloskey believed that though many of the ideas others put forward as reasons for the vast advancement of the west over other places during the industrial revolution were important, they could also be found in other parts of the world. The thing that set the west apart was the increased appreciation of the middle class.
2. What were the Carlsbad Decrees?
The Carlsbad Decrees were a series of restrictions placed upon the German people, especially in limiting their freedom of speech. They removed certain professors from universities, and limited the press on what they could say.
3. According to Rothbard, did compulsory state education emerge because governments simply wanted their people to become more knowledgeable, or were there other motivations at work?
Rothbard believed the state had ulterior motives when they instituted a required education. He said the real reason governments were putting a state education in place was to control the population via education indoctrination.